Echinacea contains a variety of chemical components, including polysaccharides, a variety of alkylamides, caffeoylphenos, flavonoids, volatile oils. Polysaccharides, alkyl amides and caffeic acid derivatives are widely studied in pharmacology.
1. Polysaccharides and glycoproteins
The aerial part of Echinacea contains 4-methoxyglucuroside arabinose-xylan and acidic arabinose-rhamnogalactose , which can be separated from echinacea leaves and stems and leaves. Sugar; pressed juice also contains pectin-like polysaccharides. Three kinds of glycoproteins can be obtained from Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea, with Mr. 1 000, 21 000, 30 000 respectively, containing about 3% of protein, and the main sugar is arabinose (64%--84%), galactose (1.9% - -5.3%) and glucosamine (1.9% - -5.3%). The protein fraction mainly contains aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid and alanine.
2. Alkyl amide compounds
The alkylamide compounds contained in Echinacea are mainly present in the roots (greater than 6 mg/g) and have a lower content in the aerial parts. Analysis of the lipophilic portion of the roots of Echinacea by HPLC, 15 fatty amide compounds with isobutyl and 2-methylbutyl groups, containing fatty amides of isobutyl and 2-methylbutyl, have been isolated The main compounds are dodeca-2E, 8F, 10E/E-tetraenoic acid isobutyramide and echinaceaamide.
3. Caffeic acid derivatives
The ethanolic extract of the aerial part and its root contains caffeic acid derivatives. The roots of Echinacea purpurea and white echinacea contain 0.3%-1.7% of echinacea, and the roots of Echinacea also contain 1,3 and 1,5-caffeoyl-quinic acid, while white echinacea does not. Compound. And experiments have shown that Echinacea has weak antimicrobial activity . In addition, cichoric acid (1R, 3R-double-caffeoyl tartaric acid) and caffeic acid (monocaffeyl tartaric acid) are also the main active components of the root and the upper part of Echinacea. Chicoric acid has the highest content of flowers and roots of Echinacea, and has immunostimulating effect; while caffeic acid mainly exists in the aerial part, and all three major echinacea plants contain caffeic acid . Separation of methyl cichoric acid, 2-oxocaffeo-3-oxo-propionyl tartaric acid and 2,3-oxo-bis-propionyl tartaric acid, 2-oxo-propionyl tartaric acid and 2- from echinacea leaves A polycaffeic acid derivative such as oxy-caffeoyl-3-oxocoumarin tartaric acid.
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